What is Caliphate?
The Caliphate is a state and government in Islam. The definition of Islam is submission to Allah.
What is submission to Allah?
Submission to Allah is submission to Allah as Al-Malik. In English dictionary we define Malik as “King”. But we are dealing with political terminology now. So Al-Malik is sovereign. Sovereignty belongs to Him. So, to submit to Allah in Islam is to submit to Allah who possesses sovereignty.
To declare someone else possesses sovereignty is to say “goodbye” to Allah.
To submit to Allah is to submit to Allah as Al-Akhbar and He reminds you that He is Al-Akhbar. Because every time you perform solah, you cannot move without Allahuakhbar.
Al-Akhbar is the one who has supreme authority. And so, the Caliphate is a state and government which submits to Allah’s authority as supreme. For a muslim to submit to anyone else and recognize his authority as supreme is to say “goodbye” to Allahuakhbar.
Islam is to submit to Allah as Al-Hakam. Al-Hakam is the Law giver. Not only He gives the Law, but the Law is the supreme Law. And when he makes something haram, it must be enforced as haram. When he makes something halal, it must be enforced as halal.
And so, anyone who submits to any law other than Allah’s law as the supreme law has said “goodbye” to Allah as Al-Hakam.
This is called Shirk.
When Firaun declared that he is the one who possesses sovereign and possesses supreme authority with his law is the supreme law, that was Shirk. So Allah, punished him with terrible punishment.